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Steven Pifer
Working Papers

The Trilateral Process: The United States, Ukraine, Russia and Nuclear Weapons

Steven Pifer
Brookings Institution, 2011 May 1, 2011

When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Ukraine had the world’s third largest nuclear arsenal on its territory.  When Ukrainian-Russian negotiations on removing these weapons from Ukraine appeared to break down in September 1993, the U.S. government engaged in a trilateral process with Ukraine and Russia.  The result was the Trilateral Statement, signed in January 1994, under which Ukraine agreed to transfer the nuclear warheads to Russia for elimination.

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Working Papers

The United States, NATO's Strategic Concept, and Nuclear Issues

Steven Pifer
, 2011 April 1, 2011

In March 2011, NATO launched its Deterrence and Defense Posture Review, which will examine the Alliance's nuclear posture, among other issues.  At about the same time, the U.S. government began its formal interagency consideration of options for dealing with non-strategic nuclear weapons in a possible future round of arms reduction talks with Russia.

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Working Papers

New START - No Killer Flaws Emerge

Steven Pifer
Brookings Institution, 2010 June 4, 2010

In the two months since the New START Treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was signed by Presidents Obama and Medvedev, critics have raised a number of questions about its terms and impact. So far, however, they have raised no substantive objection that could sink the treaty’s ratification prospects.

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Working Papers

Ukraine's Geopolitical Choice, 2009

Steven Pifer
Brookings Institution, 2009 December 31, 2009

Nearly 18 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing restoration of Ukraine’s independence, the country has yet to make a clear, committed choice about its geopolitical future. Having established itself as a sovereign state in the 1990s, Ukraine’s foreign policy sought to balance its drive to build links to Europe and the United States with its need to maintain stable relations with Russia.

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Working Papers

Reversing the Decline: An Agenda for U.S.-Russian Relations in 2009

Steven Pifer
Brookings Institution Foreign Policy Paper Series, 2009 December 31, 2009

As the Bush administration comes to a close, U.S.-Russian relations have fallen to their lowest level since the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Unresolved and problematic issues dominate the agenda, little confidence exists between Washington and Moscow, and the shrill tone of official rhetoric approaches that of the Cold War.

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Working Papers

Engaging Ukraine in 2009

Steven Pifer, Anders Aslund, Jonathan Elkind
Brookings Institution Foreign Policy Paper Series, 2009 December 31, 2009

Ukraine and Ukrainians will be tested over the course of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis already has provoked a deep recession and falling living standards. Kyiv will need to make a real effort to strike a balance between integration into Europe and the Euro-Atlantic community and maintaining stable relations with Russia. Doing so will not be easy, as Russia regards Ukraine’s pro-Western policy as inimical to Russian interests, and Ukraine’s politics are subject to influence from Moscow. In particular, Ukraine must address

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Working Papers

After START: Hurdles Ahead

Steven Pifer
Brookings Institution, 2009 September 28, 2009

The administration of Barack Obama, as a key element of “resetting” relations with Russia, has prioritized securing a follow-on agreement to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). Meeting in London on April 1, 2009, Presidents Obama and Dmitri Medvedev agreed that a new treaty reducing strategic arms would top their agenda. At their July 6-7 summit in Moscow, they defined the basic elements of that treaty.

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